Reuse in production processes of materials obtained from waste (paper, plastic, metals, etc.).

Renewable energy sources

These are mainly solar power (used by means of photovoltaic or solar cells), hydroelectricity, wind power (energy produced by the wind) and biomass (which refers in particular to substances of biological origin in non-fossil form: materials and waste products from farming and forestry, secondary products and waste from the food processing industry, waste of animal origin, as well as municipal waste, in which the organic fraction is an average of 40% by weight, algae and many species of plants used to treat organic sewage).

Return On Equity (ROE)

It measures a company’s profitability by showing how much profit (net income) is generated with the money shareholders have invested (shareholders’ equity).

Risk management

The process by which exposure to risk is determined and also how best to manage the exposure to that risk.


The number of copies printed of a single work or publication.

SA 8000

International standard certifying respect for human rights, workers’ rights, non-exploitation of children, health and safety in the workplace.

Scope 1, 2 and 3 emissions

According to the definition provided by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD), greenhouse gas emissions can be classified using the “scope” concept, which distinguishes between direct and indirect emissions and their origin.
Scope 1: these are direct emissions resulting from sources owned or controlled directly by the company, e.g. emissions resulting directly from production.
Scope 2: these are indirect emissions resulting from the generation of electricity purchased and used by the company and are typically emissions resulting from the plant where the electricity is produced.
Scope 3: these are the other indirect emissions of greenhouse gases caused by the company’s activities but resulting from sources not controlled or owned by the company itself, e.g. emissions resulting from the extraction of materials or transport of the fuels purchased.


1. The smallest virtual part into which the capital of a joint stock company can be divided.
2. Audience expressed as a percentage of total listeners or viewers.

SRI (Socially Responsible Investing)

These are investments that consider economic performance as well as social, environmental and ethical criteria.


Anyone who has a legitimate interest on which the company depends for its results and who it influences through its activities.

Stakeholder Engagement (or Stakeholder Involvement)

Policy of involving stakeholders for the purpose of fulfilling their expectations.

Stock grant

A form of remuneration given to managers through the free assignment of company shares. The assignment of stock grants is usually connected to how the company performs.

Stock option

The right to acquire or sells a share at a certain price during a specific time period. This instrument is in wide use to incentivise and compensate employees, especially top managers of big companies that want to link compensation of various levels of management to the performance of the shares.


In the field of finance and industry this refers to creating added value by anticipating and managing risks and opportunities associated with long-term developments in the economic, social and environmental fields.

Sustainability indices

Sustainability indices are stock indices, the securities of which are selected according to economic and financial parameters as well as social and environmental criteria. The selection process is carried out by specialised rating agencies that assess companies on the basis of publicly available information or questionnaires, considering the opinions expressed in the media and by stakeholders. The selection process is extremely rigorous and only companies deemed worthy are admitted to the indices. Examples of sustainability indices include the Dow Jones Sustainability Index (DJSI) and the Financial Times Stock Exchange4Good (FTSE4Good).

Sustainability report

A management tool that combines economic, social and environmental approaches in an organic structure with a view to reducing difficulties for future generations. The sustainability report takes a Triple Bottom Line approach, thus reporting on economic sustainability (ability to generate revenue, profit and employment), social sustainability (ability to ensure well-being and equitably distributed growth and to respect human rights and workers’ rights) and environmental sustainability (the ability to safeguard natural resources and the ability of the ecosystem to absorb and tolerate the impacts).

Sustainable development

Ability of the current generation to engage in the kind of development that satisfies today’s requirements without compromising the ability of future generations to fulfil their needs.